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Handbook on External Costs of Transport

Jun 04, 2014
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The Handbook provides information on how to generate external cost values for different external cost categories, as a basis for the definition of internalisation policies such as efficient pricing schemes. This information will be provided at three levels:
Methodological level: What are external costs? What methods can be used to produce external cost figures, in general and for specific external cost categories? How can the results be used for internalisation purposes?
Input values: Which input values (especially in monetary terms, such as the (economic) value of one life year lost, etc.) can be recommended to estimate external costs in the transport sector?
Output values: Which default external costs estimates for different transport modes (if meaningful, unit costs for different traffic situations) can be recommended?
The Handbook follows these three levels, compiling and evaluating the existing scientific and expert work on external cost estimation. The Handbook aims to provide the state of the art and best practice on external cost estimation for policy makers. It considers all transport modes and the work carried out at both the EU and national levels.


Year of Publication



Artem Korzhenevych, Nicola Dehnen (DIW econ)
Johannes Bröcker, Michael Holtkamp, Henning Meier (CAU)
Gena Gibson, Adarsh Varma, Victoria Cox (Ricardo-AEA)

Published by

European Commission – DG Mobility and Transport 

Place of Publication







Filed under: Transport, costs